Situation in german municipalities
Germany is one of the main host countries for refugees, who are coming to Europe in increasing numbers. In 2015, the number of asylum applications in Germany reached a record high:
Around 477,000 people applied for asylum that year.
Around 40 percent of them came from Syria.
Distribution of refugees
While there is no specific distribution formula in the EU, the distribution of refugees in Germany is clearly regulated. After they have submitted their asylum application, asylum seekers are sent to a so-called initial reception centre. As well as the capacities of the institutions and the relevant branch offices of the Federal Agency for Migration and Refugees, the distribution is determined by a quota. The so-called “Königstein formula” specifies how many asylum seekers each of the 16 Federal States of Germany must receive. The quota each year is calculated
on the basis of the tax revenue and the population of each individual state. Because of this, in 2015, North Rhine-Westphalia received around 21% of all asylum seekers. Approximately 13% went to Baden-Württemberg, and 15% to Bavaria. In 2015, 16% of asylum seekers were sent to the five eastern Federal States (excluding Berlin). The distribution of refugees in each Federal State varies, depending on the state. They are usually relocated to municipalities after living temporarily in an initial reception centre.
Requirements of the host communities
The municipalities are responsible for the accommodation, provisions and integration of refugees after the initial reception. There is a wide scope for action. Civil society also plays a significant role in facilitating the arrival and integration of refugees. The increasing number of refugees poses great challenges for state structures and municipalities in
Germany. Cities, municipalities and Federal States require more funding from the federal government for the accommodation and integration of refugees. The influx of refugees also causes problems on a societal level. In parts of the population, increasing levels of hostility towards refugees are evident.